How do you get pneumonia?
Lung inflammation (another name – pneumonia) is an infectious disease which occurs in alveoli (bubbles in the lungs). Inflammation of the lungs is considered to be one of the most common diseases, because the lungs and the human respiratory system are highly vulnerable to infections of an infectious nature.
There are quite a few reasons for the occurrence of pneumonia: bacteria, viruses, intracellular parasites, fungi. There are several types of pneumonia, and each of them has special symptoms and flow patterns. Also, pneumonia sometimes manifests itself as a complication in a person who has been ill with the flu, colds, bronchitis.
Causes of pneumonia
The most common occurrence of pneumonia provokes pneumococcus or hemophilic rod. In addition, mycoplasma, legionella, chlamydia, etc. can act as a causative agent of pneumonia. To date, there are vaccines that prevent the disease or significantly alleviate its symptoms.
There are few bacteria in the lungs of a healthy person. The microorganisms that enter lungs destroy the full-fledged immune system.
But if the protective functions of the body do not work for certain reasons, a person develops pneumonia. In view of the foregoing, pneumonia is most common in patients with poor immunity, in the elderly and in children.
Pathogens fall into the lungs of a person through the respiratory tract. For example, the lungs can get slime from the mouth, which contains bacteria or viruses. After a number of pathogens inflammation of the lungs exist in the nasopharynx in healthy people.
Also, the emergence of this disease provokes inhalation of air, in which there are pathogens. The path of transmission of pneumonia, which causes a hemophilic rod, airborne.
The development of pneumonia in young children is triggered by the following factors: trauma at labor, intrauterine hypoxia and asphyxia, congenital heart disease and lung defects, cystic fibrosis, hereditary immunodeficiencies, hypovitaminosis.
In children at school age, pneumonia can develop due to the presence of chronic foci of infection in the nasopharynx, bronchitis with relapses, cystic fibrosis, immunodeficiency, acquired heart defects.
In adults, chronic bronchitis and lung diseases, malignant smoking, endocrine diseases, immunodeficiency, postoperative operations in the chest and abdomen, alcoholism and drug addiction can provoke the onset of pneumonia.
Is pneumonia deadly?
If you do not start treatment of the disease on time, then pneumonia will progress very quickly, and its result can be even a lethal outcome. There are types of this disease, in which the symptoms of pneumonia are less pronounced. In this case, the patient may have a dry cough, a feeling of weakness, a headache.
What is worse – bronchitis or pneumonia?
Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi – the processes of the trachea located inside the lungs. Pneumonia is an inflammation of the alveoli, a dangerous lung disease that, if left untreated, leads to death.
The drugs prescribed for the treatment of bronchitis are primarily aimed at alleviating the symptoms. Mucolytics dilute and facilitate the withdrawal of phlegm, fight with a cough; antihistamines are designed to remove allergic mood. Antibiotics are prescribed only if the therapy does not give noticeable results.
For effective control of pneumonia, antibiotics are needed. This is the main method of treatment. The minimum course of admission is 7 days. Injections or tablets may be prescribed. Antibiotic therapy can provoke the development of dysbacteriosis.
Probiotics are used to prevent the breakdown of microflora.
Pneumonia is a complex disease requiring high-quality and long-term treatment. Non-compliance with the recommendations of a specialist often leads to severe consequences, such as an abscess or pulmonary edema, meningitis, respiratory failure, sepsis, etc.
Types of pneumonia
The types of pneumonia are determined by the area of the lesion. Thus, focal pneumonia occupies only a small part of the lung, segmental pneumonia affects one or more segments of the lung, divided pneumonia extends to a fraction of the lung, with discharge pneumonia, small foci merge into larger, total pneumonia affects the lung as a whole.
In acute pneumonia, an inflammatory process takes place in the lung tissue, which, as a rule, is bacterial in nature. The success of therapy of the disease, which must necessarily be carried out in a hospital, directly depends on how timely the patient turned for help.
So how do you know if you get pneumonia? Here are some symptoms, that may lead you to an answer. If you or your child have a least few of them, contact doctor immediately.
With croupous inflammation, the disease develops suddenly:
- the person’s body temperature rises sharply, reaching 39-40 ° C,
- patient feels chest pain,
- a severe chill,
- a dry cough, after a certain time, turning into a cough with phlegm.
Pneumonia in children and infants
Inflammation of the lungs in children and adults can also occur with some kind of erased symptoms. So, the patient can presume the presence of ARI, but with weakness, moderate body temperature, coughing persists for a very long time.
In addition, one-sided pneumonia is distinguished (one lung is affected) and bilateral (both lungs are affected). Primary pneumonia occurs as an independent disease, and the secondary – as an ailment, developed against a background of another disease.
What are the early signs of pneumonia?
In the course of the development of the disease, the person manifests certain symptoms of pneumonia. So, the body temperature rises sharply – it can rise to 39-40 degrees, there is a cough, during which purulent sputum is secreted.
The following symptoms of pneumonia also occur:
- chest pain,
- severe shortness of breath,
- permanent weakness.
At night, a very strong sweating can occur in the patient.
In most cases, inflammation of the lungs in children, as well as in adults, arises as a consequence of another disease. Suspected pneumonia allows a number of symptoms that appear in the patient. Special attention should be paid to certain signs of pneumonia.
So, with pneumonia the most pronounced symptom of the disease becomes coughing. The situation should be cautious if the patient has an improvement after feeling ill during the cold, or the duration of the catarrhal disease for more than seven days.
There are other signs of pneumonia: coughing when trying to breathe deeply, having a strong pallor of the skin that accompanies the usual symptoms of ARVI, the presence of dyspnea at a relatively low body temperature. With the development of pneumonia, the patient does not lose body temperature after taking antipyretics.
It should be noted that in the presence of these signs of inflammation of the lungs, you should immediately seek help from a specialist.
Diagnosis of pneumonia
To date, doctors have the ability to accurately diagnose pneumonia using various survey methods. After the treatment of the patient, the specialist, first of all, conducts a detailed survey, listens to the patient. In some doubtful cases, a clinical blood test is performed, as well as an X-ray examination.
The results of these studies make it possible to diagnose pneumonia with high accuracy.
Treatment of pneumonia
During the treatment of pneumonia, an important factor in the success is the selection of an antibiotic, as well as the dosage and methods of getting the drug into the patient’s body. So, antibiotics are injected both by injection and taken in the form of tablets or syrups. Medicines are selected depending on the type of pathogen of inflammation of the lungs.
Also in the process of treating pneumonia, a number of medicines are used that have bronchodilator properties, vitamin complexes, expectorants. After some improvement, when the patient normalizes body temperature, the treatment of pneumonia includes physiotherapy and therapeutic massage. If these methods are used, the improvement is much faster.
After recovery, the patient is in some cases prescribed a repeated X-ray in order to ascertain the success of the treatment.
The end of the main course of treatment of pneumonia to the patient is prescribed an additional intake of the vitamin complex during the month. After all, during the course of pneumonia, a large number of useful microorganisms die in the body, which produce B vitamins.
Every day, people who have had pneumonia, are recommended to practice special breathing exercises. These are exercises that help to increase the mobility of the chest, as well as stretching the adhesions that could result from the disease. Breathing exercises are shown especially for the elderly. Also people after the transferred illness should be more often on fresh air.
If the treatment is correct, recovery takes place 3-4 weeks after the onset of the disease.
Nutrition and diet for pneumonia
In parallel with the course of medical treatment for patients with pneumonia, it is recommended that certain principles of nutrition are observed, which allows achieving more effective results of treatment.
So, during the acute course of pneumonia, the patient is shown to follow a diet whose energy value does not exceed 1600-1800 kcal. To reduce the inflammatory process, you should limit the intake of salt (6 grams of salt per day for the patient), and also increase the amount of foods with a high content of vitamins C and P.
Especially valuable products are black currants, gooseberries, hips, greens, citrus fruits, lemons , raspberries, etc.
No less important and compliance with the drinking regime – a day must drink at least two liters of liquid. To ensure the maintenance of the right amount of calcium in the body, it is worth using more dairy products, and at the same time turn off dishes containing oxalic acid from the ration.
There should be small portions, six times a day. Vegetables, fruits, berries, cranberry juice, tea with lemon, milk dishes, eggs, cereals and mucus broths from cereals, low-fat broths from meat and fish are considered to be particularly useful dishes and foods during the treatment of pneumonia. Do not eat baked pastries, fatty, salty and smoked foods, fats, chocolate, spices.
In the process of recovery, the patient’s diet needs to be made more caloric due to additional proteins, and also foods that improve the secretion of the stomach and pancreas should be used.
Complications of pneumonia
As complications of pneumonia, a number of severe conditions may arise in patients: abscess and gangrene of the lung, pleural empyema, pleurisy, manifestations of acute respiratory failure, endocarditis, meningitis, pericarditis, sepsis, pulmonary edema. If the treatment scheme was not selected correctly, or the patient has a pronounced immunodeficiency, the inflammation of the lungs can lead to death.
Prevention of pneumonia
Methods of preventing pneumonia coincide with the prevention of bronchitis and acute respiratory infections. Children need to be gradually and regularly tempered, starting from the earliest age. It is also important to strengthen immunity, as well as prevent factors that provoke a state of immunodeficiency.
The risk factor of acute pneumonia is a tendency to microthrombosis, which occurs with a constant bed rest and taking a number of drugs (infecondin, bisekurin, ригевидон). To prevent acute pneumonia in this case, it is recommended to exercise every day physical therapy, breathing exercises, massage. Particular attention should be paid to the prevention of pneumonia in patients in the elderly due to a decrease in T and B immunity.