Mycoplasmosis and Ureaplasmosis are diseases, mainly of the genitourinary system, caused by different pathogens, but having a similar clinical picture.
- Men show symptoms of urethritis.
- In women, they cause symptoms of paraurethritis and vulvitis, the formation of cervical pseudo-erosion.
If untreated, inflammation quickly becomes chronic with occasional exacerbations. In the inflammatory process may involve internal genital organs, which gradually leads to the development of infertility. Perhaps the development of mycoplasmal cystitis and pyelonephritis. There is a mycoplasmal lesion of the skin, internal organs and joints.
Ureaplasmosis and mycoplasmosis: what is it?
Ureaplasmosis and mycoplasmosis – diseases, the causative agents of which are the smallest microorganisms of the family of mycoplasmas – an intermediate link between viruses and bacteria (do not have DNA and cell wall).
Parasitic on the membranes of other cells, in particular on the epithelial cells of the mucous membrane of the urogenital, respiratory, intestinal tracts of a person, can attach to erythrocytes, spermatozoa, macrophages, fibroblasts.
The family Mycoplasmataceal includes: the genus Mycoplasma (~ 100 species) and the genus Ureaplasma (2 species). Most mycoplasmas are not pathogenic. In the human body, 14 saprophytic (non-disease-producing) species of mycoplasma are isolated, and 4 types of infection are caused by:
- Ureaplasma urealyticum (ureaplasma),
- Mycoplasma hominis,
- Mycoplasma pneumoniae,
- Mycoplasma genitalium.
Ureaplasma is a special kind of mycoplasma, got its name because of its ability to break down urea. May lead to the inflammatory process in the genitourinary system – ureaplasmosis. Not always the presence of ureaplasm leads to the development of ureaplasmosis.
These so-called mixed infections are communities of microorganisms that modify the picture of the disease and help each other protect themselves from the action of drugs.
How is ureaplasmosis transmitted?
Ureaplasmosis is considered a disease that is transmitted mainly through sexual contact.
Usually, ureaplasma occurs as a chronic infection. Activation of the asymptomatic course of ureaplasma infection is possible when immunity is weakened (hypothermia, stress, operations, chronic diseases, pregnancy), when optimal conditions are created for the urogenital colonization of the urogenital section and their active reproduction.
In turn, ureaplasmas actively absorbing oxygen, provoke enhanced growth of anaerobic bacteria (gardnerella, mobilinkus).
In men, bladder, urethra, prostate, and testicles are at risk for developing ureaplasmosis;
in women, the vagina, uterus and appendages.
When ureaplasmosis, sperm cells can lose their motor activity (the ureaplasma enzymes change the sperm flow, and when ureaplasm comes in contact with the sperm, its membrane dissolves).
What are the complications of ureaplasmosis?
As an inflammatory process, ureaplasmosis can cause infertility, impaired ovulation and spermatogenesis. Ureaplasmosis often leads to complications, miscarriage, premature birth.
The causative agents of ureaplasmosis can provoke the development of acute inflammation in the uterus (endometritis) after childbirth, surgical abortion, cesarean section.
The frequency of ureaplasmosis in pregnant women is 25-30%.
Ureaplasmosis provokes inflammation of the joints (rheumatoid arthritis).
Ureaplasmosis is diagnosed most often in patients aged 14 to 29 years. Usually at this age, there is the greatest sexual activity.
Risk factors for the development of ureaplasmosis are early onset of sexual life, promiscuous sex, previous venereal diseases, gynecological problems.
Ureaplasmosis is transmitted mainly through sexual contact or close household contact (through underwear, personal care products). The intrauterine infection of the fetus with ureaplasmosis occurs through the amniotic fluid of the sick mother or during childbirth.
The incubation period for ureaplasmosis transmission is 2-3 weeks on average.
Ureaplasmosis in the form of acute, chronic infection and carriage occurs. Women are more often asymptomatic carriers of ureaplasmosis, for some, ureaplasma is the normal microflora of the vagina.
Symptoms of ureaplasmosis
Manifestations of ureaplasmosis may be of little concern to the patient, and often do not disturb at all (with carriage in women). Symptoms of ureaplasmosis is similar to the manifestations of some other urogenital infections.
Symptoms of ureaplasma in men
In males, the urethra and bladder, the testicles with appendages, the prostate gland are affected by ureaplasmosis. The following symptoms are noted:
- complaints of discharge from the urethra (usually in the morning);
pain when urinating (pain and burning);
- some manifestations of prostatitis;
- orchiepidimitis (inflammation of the testicle and its appendages).
Ureaplasmosis in men is most often manifested by non-gonococcal urethritis, prone to a long, sluggish course (discharge from the urethra can spontaneously disappear for a while and reappear).
Symptoms of ureaplasma in women
Symtoms and signs of ureaplasmosis in females are:
- symptoms of chronic obesity, cervicitis: the presence of a slight transparent or turbid discharge;
- frequent urination (sometimes with pain, burning sensation);
pain during intercourse;
- lower abdominal pain – may periodically increase, decrease, disappear completely.
Due to the often asymptomatic course, ureaplasma is diagnosed late, contributing to the development of complications.
A preliminary diagnosis of ureaplasmosis can not be made only on the basis of symptoms (they are minor and bother the patient a little). It is necessary to conduct diagnostic studies.
Diagnostics of ureaplasmosis
It is impossible to make a diagnosis solely on the basis of symptoms and external examination, since there is no observed clinical picture specific for this disease – ureaplasmosis.
Currently, ureaplasmosis means the inflammatory process of the urogenital system, when the examination revealed ureaplasma and no other pathogen was detected.
Despite the fact that today clinical venereology has a wide range of modern diagnostic methods, the diagnosis of ureaplasmosis remains difficult due to the difficulty of detecting ureaplasmas in the association of microorganisms present.
According to the results of microscopy, one can only assume the presence of ureaplasmas (the number of leukocytes in the smear may be slightly increased or normal).
To identify ureaplasma venereologists use various diagnostic techniques:
- PCR diagnostics (most informative);
- genetic probe method;
- direct immunofluorescence method (REEF), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Examination and treatment of ureaplasmosis need to go and sexual partner, even if he has no complaints. The need for treatment in the detection of ureaplasma can only determine the doctor.
Treatment of ureaplasmosis
In the process of treating ureaplasmosis, it is very important to restore the normal microflora of the organs of the urogenital system and eliminate mixed infection (anaerobic flora and protozoa).
The peculiarity of ureaplasmas is that they are insensitive to some antibacterial drugs – penicillins, cephalosporins, etc.
Most ureaplasmas are sensitive to the following antibiotics:
- Tetracyclines: tetracycline, doxycycline (in uncomplicated forms of ureaplasmosis – urethritis, cervicitis, carriage in the absence of symptoms).
- Macrolides: macropene, roxithromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, erythromycin are highly effective against pathogens of ureaplasmosis.
- Lincosamides: lincomycin, clindamycin.
- Immunomodulators (thymus extract, lysozyme, levamisole, methyluracil). Also used pantocrinum, extract of Eleutherococcus, tincture of aralia.
In the treatment of ureaplasmosis using antiprotozoal and antifungal drugs.
To restore the normal microflora, it is necessary to take drugs containing bifidobacteria and lactobacilli.
The management of pregnancy in women with ureaplasmosis is important. To minimize the risk of infection with a child’s ureaplasmosis, it is imperative that women are treated with antibacterial drugs (after 22 weeks).
During the course of treatment of ureaplasmosis, it is necessary to follow a diet rich in lactic acid products, vitamins, restriction of fatty, smoked, fried foods, hot spices and ketchups, prohibition of alcohol. During the treatment of ureaplasmosis sex life is excluded.
It is very useful to conduct a course of intestinal cleansing with sorbents, then a course of vitamins of groups B and C, taking hepatoprotectors (preparations that improve the functions of the liver), choleretic herbs.
Treatment of ureaplasmosis is carried out only under the supervision of a physician, always individually and depends on the stage of the process and the affected organ.
The course lasts about 2 weeks.
Ureaplasmosis is considered cured if the results of laboratory tests after the treatment (within 1-2 months) do not reveal ureaplasm.
Without treatment, ureaplasmosis may resume from time to time. Exacerbations can be associated with a cold, stress, drinking large amounts of alcohol, etc.
Chronic ureaplasmosis (as a constantly present inflammatory process) without treatment can eventually cause stricture (pathological narrowing) of the urethra, provoke inflammation of the prostate gland.
In women, chronic ureaplasmosis without treatment with weakened immunity can cause inflammation, adhesions in the fallopian tubes (threat of infertility, ectopic pregnancy).
In pregnant women, infection with ureaplasmosis can lead to pregnancy pathology, infection of the fetus. The prognosis for the correct and timely treatment of ureaplasmosis is quite favorable.