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Ultrasound in gynecology (female pelvic ultrasound exam)

Ultrasound in gynecology

Ultrasound examination (other variants of the name: sonography, ultrasound, ultrasound tomography, ultrasonography) is the most popular method of examination of internal organs, conducted without surgery. Ultrasound is used to diagnose diseases and establish accurate diagnoses. It is possible to conduct research on thyroid, breast, abdominal and kidney diseases, lymphatic and cardiovascular systems, use ultrasound in gynecology: for pelvic examination, and evaluation of the fetus during pregnancy.

Ultrasound, as a method of diagnosis, arose more than fifty years ago. During this time, medical workers have several times reviewed their attitude to this method. Ultrasound has gone through total mistrust, a period of reassessment of the method’s capabilities before the general fascination with this method of diagnosis. Now there is no piety for ultrasound, doctors consider it one of the main methods of diagnosis.

The ultrasound method is based on the property of the ultrasonic wave to be reflected from organs and tissues (echolocation). Then the sensor detects the reflected signal and forms on the screen the image of tissues and organs through which the ultrasonic wave passed.

Examinations of pelvic organs are carried out in two ways: transvaginally – through the vagina and transabdominally – through the anterior abdominal wall.

For today, the most actively used in diagnostic practice is ultrasound gynecology. Ultrasonography has become an indispensable method in the diagnosis of female genital diseases.

Ultrasound in gynecology is used for examination in menstrual cycle disorders, uterine bleeding, pain syndrome, before abortion, infertility, in controlling the maturation of the follicle while stimulating ovulation, when pathology (neoplasms) is detected during routine examination.

Research by ultrasound gives high information in the diagnosis:

  • uterine pregnancy;
  • maturation of the follicle;
  • functional status of ovaries and endometrium;
  • ovarian cysts (follicular, serous, endometrioid, dermoid);
  • uterine and ovarian hypoplasia;
  • abnormalities of the uterus;
  • hyperplastic processes of the endometrium;
  • uterine fibroids;
  • complications of abortion.

Transvaginal ultrasound of the female pelvic organs

Ultrasound of the pelvic organs can be performed by women both transvaginally and transabdominally. In a complex survey, both methods are often used. While the transducal ultrasound is located on the abdominal surface, ultrasound of the small pelvis is transvaginally performed with a special sensor, which is inserted into the vagina. Transabdominal ultrasound usually precedes transvaginal ultrasound.

Carrying out a transvaginal ultrasound allows you to examine the inner genitalia of a woman from a different angle and examine them in more detail. Visualization of the uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries is more detailed and allows revealing pathologies that are not detectable in abdominal ultrasound.

Clinical gynecology widely uses transvaginal ultrasound in diagnosing diseases such as uterine fibroids, intrauterine synechia, uterine polyps, cancer of the uterus and uterine tube, adnexitis, cyst and ovarian tumors, etc.

Carrying out a pelvic ultrasound transvaginally allows you to diagnose signs of diseases of the female genital area on early terms, and therefore, to proceed to timely treatment, and to prevent possible complications. Especially important is the early diagnosis of tumor processes. Malignant formations in the early stages of development can be removed completely and without significant consequences for the patient’s health.

In some cases, to obtain additional data, transvaginal ultrasound is complemented by other studies (eg, colposcopy).

Transvaginal ultrasound of the small pelvis is performed on any day of the cycle, the expediency of carrying it in one phase or another is dictated by the alleged diagnosis. For example, a study to detect uterine fibroids should be performed before ovulation, and endometriosis should be more accurately detected in the second phase of the cycle.

In pregnancy, ultrasound of the small pelvis is transvaginally administered for the first time at 11-14 weeks, or produced at the first referral of a woman to a gynecologist. Most often, it is during transvaginal ultrasound that pregnancy is diagnosed. In the future, usually enough transabdominal ultrasound. The second ultrasound is performed at a period of 22-24 weeks, and then again at 30 weeks.

Transabdominal ultrasound of the female pelvic organs

Ultrasound in gynecology

Ultrasound of the pelvic organs through the abdominal wall (transabdominal) is performed in order to study the structure of the female reproductive system, identify abnormalities and diagnose various gynecological pathologies.

For a clear visualization of female genital organs, transabdominal ultrasound is always performed on a full bladder, which creates an “acoustic window”.

Indications

This study is the most convenient tool for monitoring the health of the sexual sphere of a woman, since it helps to identify diseases at stages of preclinical manifestations. Therefore, women of reproductive age are recommended to perform ultrasound every year, and in case of revealing any pathological signs, the frequency of the study is prescribed by a doctor.

To identify various diseases, different phases of the menstrual cycle are optimal, preventive examination is recommended in the first phase 5-7 days after the onset of menstruation. There are no contraindications.

Method of conducting

The ultrasound transducer for transabdominal ultrasound of the pelvic organs is located on the front surface of the abdominal wall of a woman, lubricated to improve the conductivity of the sound wave with a special gel. Against the backdrop of low echogenicity of the fluid in the bladder, the contours of the uterus and appendages are visualized, and some elements of the structure of their tissues are seen.

Transabdominal ultrasound: Interpretation of results

The ultrasound of the pelvic organs allows to determine the shape and position of the uterus, its size, clarity of contours and features of the internal structure.

Also, the ovaries are examined, the characteristics of the follicular apparatus and the dynamics of the menstrual cycle are determined.

Ultrasound can detect abnormalities of female genital organs, inflammatory and dystrophic pathologies, and diagnose pregnancy.

Ultrasound shows the presence of a free basin with a small pelvis and the available tumor formations.

In 4-5% of women who turn to the gynecologist, with the help of ultrasound, various abnormalities of the development of the uterus (saddle or bicorne uterus, full or partial doubling, etc.) are revealed.

Ultrasound can detect and examine (determine the size, localization, note the dynamics of growth) the most common of benign neoplasms in women – myoma of the uterus.

Ultrasound examination is informative for some forms of endometriosis (adenomyosis – the germination of the endometrium in the deep layers of the uterus wall) and endometrioid ovarian cysts. It is also possible to identify adnexitis, hyperplastic pathologies and malignant neoplasms of the inner lining of the uterine wall.

The ultrasound technique: foliculometry and hysterosalpingography – are actively used in assessing the fertility of women. Occurs in the ovaries of education: from functional cysts to malignant tumors can be localized by ultrasound, evaluated for shape and size.

Transabdominal ultrasound and Diagnostics of pregnancy

The fetal egg is visualized with transabdominal ultrasound from 3-4 weeks of gestation, both in the uterine cavity and beyond. Early detection of ectopic pregnancy allows taking timely measures to eliminate it without endangering the woman’s health and life. During normal pregnancy, scheduled ultrasound in the second and third trimester is transabdominal.

In modern practice, an ultrasound sensor is increasingly used to monitor various gynecological procedures (setting and removing the IUD, artificial termination of pregnancy in the early stages, and other manipulations in the uterine cavity). Currently, gynecology is increasingly using modern techniques of three-dimensional echography, which allows you to visualize the pelvic organs with the greatest possible detail in a three-dimensional projection.

Cost of transabdominal ultrasound of pelvic organs in USA

This study is conducted in many clinics of the city and the region, has an affordable price. The cost of the technique may vary depending on the organizational and legal status of the medical diagnostic organization, the qualification of the doctor and the procedure for the procedure.

The price of transabdominal ultrasound of pelvic organs in United States of America is influenced by the type of study (conventional echoscanning, ultrasound in pregnancy) and the use of additional regimens. When performing the procedure during gestation, the cost varies depending on the trimester and the number of fetuses (singleton or multiple pregnancy).





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