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What is Trichomoniasis?

Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by infection of a person with a vaginal Trichomoniasis (Trichomonas vaginalis).

Trichomoniasis affects the organs of the human genitourinary system and is caused by a specific causative agent – a vaginal trichomonas. It belongs to the group of protozoal infections and is characterized by the ability to remain permanently inside the genito-urinary organs even under adverse conditions and the effects of various drugs.

Trichomonas infection is present in 30-70% of the total female population, and in almost half of the cases, the characteristic symptoms of the disease are absent or little pronounced.

The main route of transmission of trichomoniasis – sexual, contact-household path somehow not considered, although there is a point of view that infection is possible through just used bath accessories, which can stay fresh selection of patients with trichomoniasis.

Trichomoniasis

In men, pathogens are found in the urethra, the prostate gland and seminal vesicles, from the secretions in the semen and the secretion of the prostate.
In infected women – in the vagina and Bartholin glands, cervical canal, urethra. Often inside the trichomonads are the Neisseria and chlamydia, in these cases gonorrhea and chlamydia accompany trichomoniasis, complicating the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

Features of the pathogen

Trichomonas vaginalis (vaginal trichomonas) is the simplest organism that parasitizes the urinary tract of a person. It colonizes the mucosa and causes one of the most common sexual infections – urogenital trichomoniasis.

The incubation period, that is, the time from the moment of infection to the appearance of the first symptoms of the disease, is from 1 day to 1 month, on average – from 5 to 15 days.

During this time, the parasite, through contact with the cells of the epithelium through the spaces between them and the lymphatic network slots, penetrates into the connective tissue located under the layers of the epithelium. In the mucous membranes of the urogenital tracts, it is fixed on epithelial cells, penetrates into glands and gaps between their cells.

Trichomonases:

  • Quickly lose vitality outside the human body. A prerequisite for life is the presence of moisture, when dried, they quickly die.
  • Not resistant to high temperatures (over 40 ° C), direct sunlight, the effects of antiseptic agents.

Forms of trichomoniasis

Fresh

Up to two months.

Chronic

Characterized as a rule, torpid current over a period of more than two months.

Trichomonas infection

In the laboratory detection of trichomonads, there are no clinical symptoms of the disease.

Causes of Trichomoniasis

In fact, 90% of the population are carriers of Trichomonas, but most people do not show themselves.

In 10 percent of carriers of infection, the parasite has a pathogenic effect on the body. It is assumed that the behavior of Trichomonas is influenced by the environment in which it lives.

How can I get trichomoniasis?

  • unprotected sex;
  • a large number of sexual partners;
  • early transferred or not completely cured venereal diseases.

The development of trichomonads in the body is promoted by hormonal failures, metabolic disorders, decreased immune response of the body. Immunity to trichomoniasis is not produced, so you can get infected again.

Transmission paths:

Trichomoniasis is transmitted through sexual contact, although it is possible and vnepolovoe infection: a vertical path of transmission during childbirth, during the passage of the fetus through an infected birth canal.
There is also contact-household transmission of infection, but the risk of infection is very insignificant, because the clothes, towels bedding parasites continue to live outside the body of a very short time, about 10-15 minutes.

Factors contributing to the development of urogenital trichomoniasis:

  • disorders of the endocrine system;
  • metabolic disorders;
  • hypovitaminosis;
  • bacterial contamination of the vagina, accompanied by a change in its acidity;
  • menstruation and post-menstrual period.

Trichomoniasis

First signs of trichomoniasis

Trichomoniasis, like gonorrhea, is almost impossible to recognize by itself, except for frequent discharge from the genitals. A transparent, large-sized drop is the only symptom inherent in everyone with trichomoniasis.

Not direct signs of trichomoniasis:

  • pain in the discharge of urine (as in gonorrhea);
  • severe periodic burning;
  • itching;
  • pain in the lumbar part of the body.

In the acute phase of trichomoniasis, the symptoms begin to manifest quite clearly in the form:

  • temperature increase;
  • increased ESR;
  • development of leukocytosis.

Symptoms of trichomoniasis in adults

Typically, the incubation period of trichomoniasis lasts from 2 days to 2 months. If the trichomoniasis proceeds in an erased form, the first symptoms may appear several months after infection with a decrease in immunity or exacerbation of other chronic infections.

Trichomoniasis (depending on the severity of symptoms and duration) can occur in acute, subacute, chronic forms.

The main symptoms of trichomoniasis are discharge from the urethra or vagina, the entrance gate of the infection. Among women, this symptom is observed in about 8 out of 10, in men – in half of cases of trichomoniasis.

Trichomoniasis in women

With the development of trichomoniasis, women develop characteristic complaints:

  • secretions from the genitals (abundant, often serous-purulent, foamy – characteristic for trichomoniasis);
  • itching, burning, burning during urination;
  • swelling and congestion (redness);
  • the occurrence of erosion in the folds of the vaginal mucosa;
  • soreness in examination, with pressure on the urethra – the appearance of secretions;macerated skin;

Often incidentally, genital warts occur.

If the disease affects the cervix (endocervicitis), then there is swelling of the cervix, accompanied by abundant secretions. Often erosion is formed.

Trichomoniasis

Trichomoniasis in men

After the urogenital trichomonas has got into the male body, its vital activity provokes the development of the so-called trichomoniasis urethritis. This infectious-inflammatory disease is accompanied by a number of such clinical symptoms:

  • Burning sensation during urination or after intimate affinity;
  • Muco-purulent discharge from the urethral canal, accompanied by discomfort and unpleasant odor;
  • Formation of a tightening (strictures) in the urethra;
  • Signs of inflammatory damage of the testicles and their appendages, as well as the prostate gland.

The infected person may not suspect that he is the source of the spread of the infection, and transmit the bacilli to sexual partners or family members.

Therefore, if a man has seen the slightest signs of urogenital infections, need to see a urologist and get tested not only for trichomoniasis, but also for other STIs.

Typically, the symptoms of acute forms of trichomoniasis manifest order of about 1-2 weeks, after which clinical manifestations or subject to reduction or disappearance or shift in a chronic form of the disease.

Complications

Complications of trichomoniasis:

  • Acute or chronic inflammation of reproductive organs in women and men: endometritis, salpingo, urethritis, prostatitis, etc…
  • When pregnancy increases the risk of miscarriage, premature birth, infection of the fetus, the development of purulent-septic complications of the postpartum period.
  • Male and female infertility.
  • Increased risk of infection with other sexually transmitted infections. It is proved that the presence of trichomoniasis in women doubles the risk of infection with herpes simplex viruses of the second type and with papillomavirus infection, as well as with HIV.

Trichomoniasis Diagnostics

Microscopic examination does not always allow finding the causative agent of the disease. Not always with pronounced symptoms of trichomoniasis, parasites are found in the material of the discharge of the urethra. Therefore, the diagnosis of trichomoniasis should be carried out by all possible laboratory methods and repeatedly. Only then it will be possible to achieve positive results.

From laboratory diagnostic methods apply:

  • microscopic examination of native smears from the vagina, urethra and cervix (is valid only for a quick svezhevzyatyh microscopy smears);
  • microscopic examination of stained smears by Gram;
  • culture method (sowing of mucus and urethra contents on nutrient media, but requires 4 to 7 days);
  • PCR (polymerase chain reaction) – isolation of trichomonadic DNA from the separable urethra or vagina (very expensive analysis).

In most cases, trichomoniasis is accompanied by the following infections:

  • gonorrhea;
  • bacterial vaginosis;
  • chlamydia;
  • mycoplasmosis;
  • fungal lesions (thrush in men).

Trichomoniasis bacilli

This information should be taken into account when assigning the appropriate course of therapy.

Trichomoniasis treatment

Treatment involves several basic principles, including:

  • treatment of the disease in a simultaneous order, that is, it implies the treatment of both sexual partners;
  • prohibition of sexual activity during the treatment of the disease;
  • elimination of factors provoking a decrease in the body’s resistance, which implies the need for a cure for concomitant diseases, hypovitaminosis and other similar types;
  • the use of anti-trichomonias drugs in combination with local and general hygiene procedures.

Drugs for trichomoniasis

Before using any medication, be sure to consult with your doctor. there are contraindications.

Drugs Instruction

  1. Metronidazole (Trichopolum) The first day take 1 tablet 4 times inside, washing down with water.
  2. From the second to the seventh day inclusive take 1 tablet 3 times a day, also inside with water.
  3. Metronidazole Anti-protozoal, antimicrobial drug.

The mechanism of action is the inhibitory effect on the genetic apparatus of bacteria.

At the same time, all biological processes of the cell gradually stop and the microorganism dies.

Contraindication is:

  • pregnancy
  • hypersensitivity to the drug.

Tinidazole Once taken immediately 4 tablets of 500 mg each.

Or for 7 days to 1/3 of the pill 2 times a day.

Contraindications:

  • disorders of hematopoiesis,
  • pregnancy and lactation,
  • hypersensitivity to the drug

Klion – D Combined drug, which contains equal parts of metronidazole and miconazole (antifungal drug).

Assign in the form of vaginal suppositories for 1 piece at night for 10 days.

There is an approved scheme for the treatment of chronic trichomoniasis, as well as recurrent and various localizations:

  • a single dose within a day of 2.0 g Metronidazole 7-10 days or 500 mg 3 times a day for the same number of days.
  • Tinidazole – 2.0 g once daily for 3 days.
  • Highly effective with good tolerability and a small number of possible side effects is Ornidazole, or Ornisol, in a dose of 0.5 g – 2 times a day for 10 days.

Immunomodulating agents are also used that also suppress the development of concomitant infection, for example, fungal infection – 3 irrigation of the vagina and cervical zone with 0.04% solution of Gepon in a dose of 5 ml – 1 irrigation with a 2 – 3-day interval.

Treatment for Trichomoniasis

In addition, to reduce the harmful effects of antimicrobials on the intestinal microflora, it is recommended to take medicinal medicines containing bifidobacteria.

After taking Metronidazole, it is strictly prohibited to drink alcohol within 24 hours.

If the patient takes Tinidazole, then the duration of abstinence from alcohol is at least 72 hours. If these restrictions are not observed, a person risks to face such adverse reactions as dizziness, nausea and vomiting.

Trichomoniasis is considered cured, when the pathogen is not diagnosed during diagnosis, and there are no clinical symptoms. Sexual life during treatment is excluded. It is necessary to inform your sexual partner about the presence of trichomoniasis and other STDs, about the need for examination and treatment.

The result of treatment of trichomoniasis depends on the normalization of the microflora of the genitourinary system and the body as a whole. For this purpose, women are vaccinated against inactivated acidophilic lactobacilli. Perhaps the appointment of immunomodulating drugs.
Prevention

Prevention of trichomoniasis reduces to compliance with the rules that prevent infection with sexually transmitted diseases. Key recommendations:

  • use condoms;
  • to be attentive to the choice of partners;
  • avoid accidental sexual intercourse;
  • Do not use shared towels, scouring pads and other hygienic supplies.

Note also that trichomoniasis is easily transmitted during intercourse, so if there are suspicions of infection, it is necessary to examine both partners at once.




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