Malignant lesion of the skin is among the most common forms of cancer. Skin cancer on the face in most cases occurs after the age of 50 years, but the disease is not excluded in young people.
The prognosis depends on the type of skin cancer. So, melanoma is considered the most aggressive, therefore, rapid metastasis to the liver and brain is observed. If the disease is diagnosed at the stage of metastasis, the illness is no longer curable.
Early signs of skin cancer on the face
To promptly consult a doctor, you need to know the first signs of a malignant degeneration of moles.
- increase in a nevus within several months;
- discoloration (darkening, lightening, pigmentation heterogeneity, enlightenment in the center);
- violation of the form (asymmetry);
- unclear outlines (the boundaries become “blurred”, which makes it impossible to accurately determine the size of the education);
- pain sensations;
- the appearance of an erosive defect on the surface of a mole.
If the birthmark was not originally on the skin, then the person first notes its appearance, and then its further transformation.
Symptoms of a mature face cancer
Skin cancer is represented by several types of formations:
- Squamous cell carcinoma;
- Basalioma (basal cell carcinoma).
The most commonly diagnosed surface melanoma, which is localized in the upper skin layers. Above the skin, it slightly protrudes, visually resembles a normal nevus.
Nodular melanoma is observed in 25% of all melanomas. It is considered the most aggressive type. Externally, it looks like a nodule with a dark color, elevated above the surface.
In people over the age of 70 on the head, in the neck area, melanoma-lentigo is diagnosed. It rises somewhat above the surface. The subungual form is manifested by the formation of formation under the thumb nail.
Squamous cell type, basal cell carcinoma less aggressive, therefore, respond well to treatment. They are manifested by a crack, wound focus on the face, neck, which do not heal for a long time.
When to go to the doctor?
It is recommended to consult a doctor when the first signs of the malignant transformation of the mole appear. In order to timely detect the pathological process, it is necessary to regularly review all the nevi that are on the body, especially in the open areas of the skin.
Particular attention should be paid to nevi, which are located in an area with constant friction, for example, in the area of cuffs, gates, bras, belts. In this case, it is recommended to consult with a doctor in advance about which moles should be removed without waiting for their malignancy.
What is included in the diagnosis of skin cancer on the face?
Diagnosis of skin cancer involved an oncologist, after a preliminary examination of the dermatologist. The diagnostic process includes a visual inspection of a modified nevus or a mole that first appeared.
From instrumental diagnostics, a smear (imprint) examination under a microscope is used. This technique is carried out most often, as it does not require injury to education.
Histological analysis is performed for suspected cancer pathology. In this case, the material is examined to identify atypical structures, cells.
In order to detect metastases (closely spaced, distant), the oncologist prescribes an additional diagnosis. It involves the use of ultrasound, computed, magnetic resonance imaging. If necessary, an aiming puncture is performed, followed by histological analysis.
Modern treatment of face cancer
Therapeutic tactics depend on the stage of the oncological process. When identifying metastases, the prognosis is significantly worse. Treatment of skin cancer on the face involves the removal of a malignant lesion in a surgical way. The material is subjected to histological examination.
In addition to surgery, radiation and chemotherapy are prescribed. Thanks to an integrated approach, the primary focus is removed, the remaining cancer cells are destroyed during irradiation, chemotherapy. Thus, further metastasis is prevented. If secondary foci of screening have already been identified, chemotherapy will reduce the rate of their increase and the further spread of altered cells throughout the body.
To reduce the risk of re-formation of a malignant neoplasm on the skin of the face, it is necessary to follow the main rules for the prevention of skin cancer, including:
- It is forbidden to sunbathe under the sun during its maximum activity.
- If you plan a long stay in the sun, you need to use protective equipment, such as sunscreen, a hat, loose pants, summer tunics with long sleeves.
- You should not use the solarium, cosmetic products to enhance tanning.
Home prevention is the timely treatment of a doctor. With early diagnosis of skin cancer on the face can be cured, not allowing metastasis and adverse outcome of the disease.