If doctors don’t take actions, negative blood type (Rhesus factor) might have severe consequences for baby. But let’s not worry beforehand, first we should discover possible threats.
Pregnancy with a negative Rhesus
If the parents have different antigen values, and there is a possibility of a rhesus-conflict in bearing a fetus – this is not a reason for the disorder. Sensitive observation of specialists and regular delivery of tests, as well as knowledge of how to give birth with negative rhesus, will help to pass this stage without risks for the child.
At the first pregnancy
Only during pregnancy, the woman first encounters unfamiliar, foreign antigens. There is a high probability that the development of antibodies against antigens will not begin at all. In the first pregnancy the process of their production (if it began) proceeds slowly. The decrease in immunity due to a change in the hormonal background and sluggishness of white blood cells, contributes to the fact that the rhesus conflict either does not begin at all, or occurs weakly expressed.
At the second and subsequent pregnancies
Faced with foreign antigens, the body acquires “cellular memory”. This means that the next collision with a foreign antigen, the formation of antibodies in the female body will occur much faster. With each successive time the rate of the process increases, increasing the inevitability of the development of Rh-conflict.
Memorization occurs not only after the successful carrying of the baby, but also after miscarriage, abortion, medical intervention associated with blood transfusions.
Consequences of negative Rh factor in pregnancy
A pregnant woman with a negative rhesus is required to take an antibody test on a monthly basis. Accompanying pregnancy with such an anamnesis obstetrician-gynecologist pays close attention. Before the thirty-second week, the venous blood test for antibodies is performed every month. After the thirty-second week, it should be taken every couple of weeks.
From 35 weeks – weekly.
The rest of the baby’s bearing by the mother with negative rhesus does not differ from the course of the usual pregnancy. From the rapidity of the development of antibodies depends on whether to introduce the immunoglobulin of the future mother.
Influence on the health of the baby
If preventive measures are not taken, dangerous pathological processes are launched:
How does negative Rh factor affect the fetus
- Reducing the number of erythrocytes in the fetus, responsible for the transport of oxygen, which gradually develops oxygen starvation. First of all, it affects the development of the heart and brain.
- The amount of bilirubin increases. It is produced when erythrocytes are destroyed. An increasing number of bilirubin causes severe intoxication of the fetus.
- Enhancement of the production of erythrocytes by the spleen and the liver of the child, causing an increase in these organs and their pathological development.
- Development of imbalance in blood composition, impaired production of blood particles, development of pathologies in the development of the spinal cord, congenital hemolytic anemia .Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) is manifested by pallor of the skin, a general weakness.
What can your doctor do
If any pathologies are detected, cardiotocography (CTG), as well as dopplerometry, is additionally performed. These studies allow you to assess the performance of the cardiovascular system of the baby, and whether enough oxygen is supplied to him by the utero-placental blood flow.
If the analysis on the antibody shows their rapid growth, invasive diagnostic methods are used. This method of diagnosis is dangerous by the leakage of water surrounding the fetus, the risk of infection, the formation of a hematoma on the umbilical cord.
Do not forget to ask your gynecologist all the necessary questions.
I also recommend you to read my article I published on this website: https://netdoctor.center/pregnancy-and-rh-factor.html
I wish you all the luck!