- HPV genital warts on men and women
- Venereal HPV warts: what are they?
- Risk factors for infection with genital warts
- Ways to develop an HPV infection (genital warts)
- Genital HPV warts symptoms and signs
- Diagnosis of HPV infection (genital warts)
HPV genital warts on men and women
Condylomas (HPV warts) are a type of viral warts, which are soft papillary lesions on the stem, prone to fusion. Merging, form colonies, superficially resembling the appearance of cauliflower. More often occur in the anogenital region. Deliver discomfort in the genital area, psychological inconvenience, sexual problems. Traumatized condylomas leads to their infection and is accompanied by discharge with an unpleasant odor, itching and pain. May malignize. The virus is sexually transmitted.
The treatment consists in removing the condyloma (laser, liquid nitrogen, radio knife, normal scalpel) against the background of systemic antiviral therapy.
Human papillomavirus – a filtering virus that causes the appearance on the skin and mucous membranes of humans small, often multiple, tumor-like formations of a benign nature. Manifested in the form of viral warts or HPV warts.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is characterized by chronic relapsing course, widespread, high susceptibility. Papilomavirus infections of the genital tract constitute a risk group for the occurrence of malignant tumors of the genital organs and the development of bleeding.
Venereal HPV warts: what are they?
HPV warts, often referred to as genital warts, are skin and mucosal tumors of the genital organs caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). This is one of the most frequent manifestations of human papillomavirus infection, characterized by a long, chronic, recurrent nature of the course. Usually, condylomas are flesh-colored nipples that have a lobular structure and a leg, but can also grow to massive formations that look like cauliflower.
Condylomas are located more often on the genitals (in women – on the labia, vagina, cervix; in men – on the head of the penis, foreskin), also in the anus and perineum, less often in the mouth.
Genital warts belong to the group of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), therefore, their diagnosis and treatment mainly deals with venereology. However, women, as a rule, come with this problem to consult a gynecologist and are treated by him. Men turn to the urologist. And with the anal warts of the anal area most often encountered proctologist.
The main spread of HPV infection usually occurs during vaginal, oral, or anal sexual contact with an infected partner. Genital warts usually appear in places exposed to injury through sexual contact. HPV can be transported during sexual intercourse with flakes exfoliating with warts, and in women it can also enter the vagina and cervix from the vulva when using hygienic tampons during menstruation.
It is also possible intrauterine transmission of the virus from an infected mother to the fetus, and infection of the child during childbirth in the presence of active HPV or condyloma on the mucous genitalia of the pregnant woman.
Risk factors for infection with genital warts
Human papillomavirus is widespread and highly contagious. More than half of sex workers are infected with one or more strains of HPV. In humans, HPV changes the nature of tissue growth, which leads to diseases of the skin and mucous membranes (genital warts, warts, papillomas, dysplasia and cervical carcinoma). There are more than 100 strains of HPV, and different strains cause various diseases, including precancerous ones. HPV strains (6 and 11) affect mainly the urogenital tract and cause the development of genital anogenital warts.
The appearance of human papillomavirus infection and its further development is caused by the weakening of human immunity. This infection is characterized by an asymptomatic course, it does not manifest itself in many infected people. Most people who carry the appropriate HPV strains do not develop genital warts. Factors that increase the risk of infection with genital warts include:
- transferred STDs (chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, herpes, candidiasis, etc.);
- free sexual behavior (with frequent change of sexual partners, through a partner who previously had sexual contact with an HPV carrier);
- internal factors of the body (reduced immunity, lack of vitamins, susceptibility to stress);
- vaginal dysbacteriosis.
Ways to develop an HPV infection (genital warts)
The development of HPV infection is determined by the state of the body’s immune responses, depending on this, the most possible variants of the development of human papillomavirus infection (including condyloma) are:
- self-healing, regression of condylomas (in particular, those that appeared during pregnancy);
- lack of any dynamics over a long period of time;
- gradual or rapid growth of condylomas (increase in size, quantity);
- malignant degeneration of warts.
According to the risk of developing an oncological process, several groups of HPV strains are distinguished:
- low risk
- medium risk
- high risk
Medium- and high-risk HPV strains (mainly 16, 18, 31, 33, and 35) cause the development of cervical dysplasia and increase the risk of cervical cancer, but do not cause the development of genital warts. HPV strains of low risk (above all, 6 and 11) provoke genital warts, but do not cause cervical dysplasia. Women infected with high-risk HPV should be regularly examined (oncocytology) for the timely detection of cervical dysplasia.
In a complicated variant of the development of anogenital warts, they can be injured and infected, and bleeding can occur. In addition, genital warts prevent normal sexual life and normal birth, cause a feeling of psychological discomfort due to the presence of a cosmetic defect.
Genital HPV warts symptoms and signs
Human papillomavirus infection is transmitted from person to person, and at the same time you can become infected with several types of the papillomavirus. HPV lives in the cells of the skin and mucous membranes. For a long time, human papillomavirus infection can proceed covertly (latently).
A sufficient amount of virus must accumulate in the cells in order for the clinical symptoms of HPV infection to occur. Reproduction of HPV and its amount in the body depends on the level of immune protection. Under the influence of various factors that reduce local and general immunity, the virus is activated, replicates and develops skin manifestations.
Once in the body, HPV infects epithelial cells (especially the zone of the transition of stratified squamous epithelium into cylindrical). In an infected cell, the virus can be in two forms: episomal (the benign form outside of cell chromosomes) and introsomal – integrated (the malignant form in the cell genome).
With a latent course of infection, HPV exists in an episomal form, without leading to pathological changes in the cells and without causing clinical manifestations.
Multiply in large quantities, HPV changes the growth and development of epithelial cells. They begin to intensively and uncontrollably divide, there is a proliferation of the area of the skin or mucous membranes and the formation of genital warts. They may appear a few pieces, and sometimes a few dozen. Anogenital warts often occur simultaneously, less frequently over several days.
Symptoms of genital warts in men
In men, genital warts are most often found on the head of the penis (coronary sulcus) and foreskin (bridle and inner leaf), less often – the body of the penis, scrotum, near the anus and urethral opening. The appearance of condylomas in the urethra causes discomfort, difficulty urinating, splashing urine stream.
Symptoms and signs of genital warts in women
In women, condylomas most often appear in the region of the labia minora (bridle, clitoris), less often in the vagina, on the labia majora, on the cervix, in the anus, perineum and urethral opening. Genital warts of the vagina and cervix can only be detected during a pelvic exam.
Extremely rarely, genital warts develop in the oral cavity. In case of permanent mechanical damage, condylomas can grow up to 3-5 cm in diameter.
In addition to anogenital, there are other types of genital warts:
- Papular warts are dark red in color, have a dome-shaped shape and a smooth surface, are on the fully cornified epithelium.
- Keratotic warts – superficially resemble cauliflower, usually located on the trunk of the penis, scrotum, labia.
- Giant condyloma – develops during pregnancy, in patients with reduced immunity.
- Endourethral condylomas – localized in the urethra, occur mainly in men.
Condylomas of the cervix:
- exophytic (external) warts – almost the same as anogenital warts
- endophytic (internal) flat warts – are located in the thickness of the tissues of the vagina and cervix epithelium, they can not be detected during a routine examination. Detected by colposcopy, often combined with dysplasia and sometimes with preinvasive carcinoma of the cervix, pose a risk of malignancy
- warty epidermisplasia – multiple polymorphic flat papules pinkish-red color with a warty surface.
Diagnosis of HPV infection (genital warts)
Diagnosis of human papillomavirus infection includes:
- clinical examination
In the presence of typical genital warts, the definition of an HPV strain is not necessary. In men, genital warts are often confused with the papular necklace of the penis (variant of the norm). In women, genital mucous papilloma of the labia can sometimes be considered as genital warts (normal variant). In case of suspected peaked condylomas, it is necessary to exclude other diseases.