- What is Cervicitis?
- What causes Cervicitis?
- What are the symptoms of cervicitis?
- Chronic inflammation of the cervix
- Lymphocytic cervicitis
- Candid cervicitis
- Viral cervicitis
- Cystic cervicitis
- Atrophic cervicitis
- Diagnosing Cervicitis
- Treatment of cervicitis
- Is Cervicitis curable?
- Cervicitis in pregnancy: is it dangerous?
Cervicitis is referred to the pathologies of the female sexual sphere of an inflammatory nature. It is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the cervix (vaginal part) and its cervical canal. Very often he accompanies more voluminous pathological processes (vulvovaginitis, colpitis), and rarely is an independent disease.
The cervix is a certain barrier, the task of which is to prevent the spread of infection by the ascending pathway to the uterus and its appendages. If its protective function is violated, the pathogens penetrate into the upper parts of the female’s internal genitalia, provoking the development of cervicitis. A woman begins to worry about atypical discharge, pain with localization in the abdomen, periodic or permanent, which intensify during sexual intercourse or urination.
What is Cervicitis?
Cervicitis is an inflammation of the cervix, if you say it in simple language. But, not so simple – let’s consider the issue in detail.
What causes Cervicitis?
The main cause of cervicitis are diseases that are transmitted sexually. With the development of a certain sexually transmitted disease, the liquefaction of thick mucus gradually develops, resulting in inflammation of the mucous membrane. After that, the infection begins to spread to the base of the cervix. In view of such changes, microbes gradually enter the uterus, the appendages, later spread into the bladder, kidneys and other organs. As a result, in the cavity of the pelvis, women develop pathological phenomena, up to peritonitis.
If the main cause of the development of cervicitis in women are sexually transmitted diseases, the doctors also identify a number of factors that contribute to the development of this disease. The risk of developing cervicitis increases significantly if a woman has been infected with the herpes virus or human papillomavirus.
Cervicitis can overtake a girl at a time when she is just beginning an active sex life. Also cervicitis of the cervix can appear as a consequence of mechanical or chemical irritation (it is a question of contraceptive or hygienic means). In some cases, the inflammatory process occurs as a result of the allergic reaction of the body to latex, other components of contraceptives or personal hygiene products.
The factor provoking the disease is also weakened immunity due to other somatic diseases. In addition, cervicitis can develop due to injuries caused during the abortion or childbirth (in this case it is important to qualitatively cover all gaps of the perineum and cervix, obtained in the generic process), with the genitalia in women. Also, the disease often affects women who entered the menopause.
All the reasons described above contribute to the active multiplication of microorganisms assigned to the group of conditionally pathogenic (staphylococci, streptococci, enterococci, E. coli). Under normal health conditions, such microorganisms are present in the microflora of the vagina.
What are the symptoms of cervicitis?
Manifestations of the acute form of the disease are expressed significantly. The patient is concerned with purulent or abundant mucosal leucorrhoea, vaginal itching and burning, which are intensified by urination. Also may be painful in cervicitis. Usually it is dull or aching pain in the lower abdomen, a painful intercourse. Other signs of the disease are due to concomitant pathology.
If the inflammatory process of the cervix has arisen against the background of cystitis, worries about frequent and painful urination. With adnexitis and inflammatory process in the cervix, there is an increase in temperature from subfebrile (above 37) to febrile digits (38 and above). With the combination of pseudo-erosion and cervicitis, spotting spotting after coition may appear. A distinctive feature of the disease is the aggravation of all clinical symptoms after menstruation.
Chronic inflammation of the cervix
The disease, which was not adequately treated on time in an acute stage, is chronic. Symptoms of chronic cervicitis are less or less pronounced. The discharge acquires a turbid-mucous character, the flat epithelium of the vaginal part of the cervix is replaced by a cylindrical cervical channel, pseudo-erosion of the cervix is formed.
Inflammatory phenomena (redness and swelling) are poorly expressed. When the inflammation spreads to the surrounding tissues and into the interior, the cervix becomes denser, it is possible again to replace the cylindrical epithelium with the ectopia, which is accompanied by the formation of the set cysts and infiltrates.
The disease is also called follicular Cervicitis. This form of inflammation is asymptomatic and occurs in women in menopause. The process is a lymphoid “impregnation” of the walls of the cervix, resulting in the formation of follicular benign formations. If such a form of inflammation is detected, the doctor will necessarily conduct differential diagnosis with malignant lymphosarcoma.
Occurs in a situation where the vagina already has a fungal infection (thrush). When examining the cervix in the mirrors, white deposits are identified, which are easily scraped off, resulting in an inflamed red mucosa.
The disease appears as a result of infection with the herpes simplex virus, human papilloma, HIV. It presents a certain complexity in recognition, since it has no specific features. During the examination, the doctor can see vesicles characteristic for herpes infection or the diagnosis will be confirmed only by the laboratory.
It is a form of the disease, in which the formation of benign cysts in the cervical region. As a result of the inflammatory process, there is a blockage of the glands secreting mucus and their subsequent proliferation, which the gynecologist will detect during examination or colposcopy.
Most often it is a chronic and nonspecific form of the disease. Frequent causes of atrophic inflammation are traumatic manipulations associated with impaired integrity of the cervical canal of the uterus or birth.
The diagnosis is established by the doctor-gynecologist following the results of the examination and additional research methods. He collects an anamnesis, studies complaints and symptoms. During the examination on the chair, the doctor sees foci of inflammation, pinpoint hemorrhages on the surface of the exocervix, an increase in its size due to swelling, redness and swelling of the vaginal walls, external genitalia.
A gynecologist takes a swab from the surface of the cervix to further study it under a microscope – cytology. The resulting material is also sown on nutrient media – the grown colonies of the pathogen make it possible to determine its appearance and sensitivity to antibiotics. If necessary, the doctor measures the pH of the vaginal discharge – its increase indicates changes in its microflora.
Chronic cervicitis leads to the appearance on the cervix of pathological foci – they are detected when treated with iodine solution. In this case, a colposcopy is performed-the study of the epithelium of exocervix under a large increase to exclude the malignant degeneration of its cells. For the diagnosis of chronic endocervicitis, scraping of the cervical canal is performed, followed by a study of the cellular composition of the resulting material. To exclude tumors of the female reproductive system, they are examined by ultrasound.
Treatment of cervicitis
First of all, it is necessary to identify and eliminate factors that could serve as the cause of cervicitis. It is worth noting that in case of detection of sexually transmitted infections, a woman’s sexual partner should also undergo treatment.
The tactics of cervicitis treatment depend on the identified cause of the disease. Scheme of treatment for different types of cervicitis:
- When fungal infection – use of antimycotics, suppositories with econazole;
- With Chlamydia infection, a combination of several antibiotics (Tetracycline + Azithromycin) is prescribed for a period of at least 21 days;
- When atrophic inflammation helps the introduction of vaginal suppositories, creams, gels containing estriol;
In bacterial infections – antibiotic treatment (neomycin suppositories, metronidazole), combined anti-inflammatory and antibacterial drugs. After the sanation, candles with useful lactobacilli are prescribed to restore normal microflora.
Is Cervicitis curable?
After remission of the acute stage of the disease, the use of local methods of treatment is possible. Effective use of creams and suppositories. It is recommended to treat the mucous membranes of the vagina and cervix with solutions of silver nitrate, chlorophyllipt or dimexide.
In advanced cases of the disease, when atrophic changes are observed in the mucous membrane of the cervix, local hormonal therapy is shown that promotes the regeneration of the epithelium and the restoration of the normal vaginal microflora.
Conservative treatment may not produce the desired results in the chronic stage of cervicitis. In such cases, the doctor may recommend surgical treatment (cryotherapy, laser therapy, diathermocoagulation).
To assess the effectiveness of treatment, a control colposcopy is performed and laboratory tests are performed.
Cervicitis in pregnancy: is it dangerous?
Cervicitis is associated with the destruction of the mucous plug, which protects the uterus from the penetration of infection from the vagina. The likelihood of the disease and the transition of the inflammatory process to the chronic form increases due to the inevitable decrease in immunity during this period (this prevents rejection of the fetus).
In the presence of cervicitis in pregnant women, the risk of complications such as miscarriage, premature birth increases. Possible infection of the fetus, which leads to improper development, the appearance of ugliness, intrauterine death, the death of a newborn in the first months of life.
The greatest threat to cervicitis is in the early stages of pregnancy, when the fetus forms organs and systems. Most often, a woman has a miscarriage. If acute cervicitis occurs in the middle or late pregnancy, the child may develop hydrocephalus, kidney disease and other organs. Therefore, planning a pregnancy, a woman must be cured of cervicitis in advance, strengthen immunity. Treatment is mandatory, as the risk of complications is very high.