Oncological diseases – causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
Oncological diseases include tumor processes of different localization and histological structure. In a broad sense, they combine benign and malignant neoplasms, but practical oncology specializes mainly in the treatment of malignant tumors. At present, cancer diseases are significantly “rejuvenated” and are truly epidemic, so the search for ways to prevent, early detection and treatment presents an actual interdisciplinary problem. To solve it within the individual medical specialties, narrow areas are distinguished: oncogynecology, oncourology, oncodermatology, onco-ophthalmology, neurooncology, etc.
There are many forms of tumors that differ in localization, cellular structure, degree of aggression, features of the course and prognosis, and a variety of other factors. In oncology tumors are usually divided into benign, conditionally benign (borderline) and malignant. Benign neoplasms are characterized by relatively slow growth, a lack of propensity to metastasize, a good prognosis. To such types of tumors include fibromas, lipomas, nevi, papillomas, leiomyomas, neurinomas, chondromas, angiomas and many others. other
Conditionally benign tumors also do not produce metastases, but they have the capacity for cancer degeneration and repeated recurrence after removal. Examples of such cancers include adenomatous polyps of the stomach, atypical moles, skin horn, senile keratosis, Bowen’s disease, etc. Tumors of a malignant nature are characterized by invasive growth, germination of surrounding tissues, metastasis, recurrence. To such types of tumors include cancer (carcinoma), sarcoma, lymphoma.
Annually in the world oncology is diagnosed in about 10 million people, and 8 million patients die from this or that form of cancer. In US, every fifth compatriot runs the risk of cancer during a lifetime. According to WHO, the “rating” of the most common oncological diseases is as follows. Thus, the most frequent “female” type of cancer is breast cancer; followed closely by cervical cancer. The absolute leader among male oncology is prostate cancer.
The most frequently diagnosed and deadly types of cancer, regardless of gender, are: lung cancer, colon cancer, stomach cancer and liver cancer. A few rare causes of death are cancer of the bladder and kidneys, pancreas, leukemia, melanoma. Among childhood cancer cancers are leukemia, neuroblastoma, Wilms tumor, lymphoma, osteosarcoma, retinoblastoma.
To date, there are many reasons that lead to the development of malignant tumors. Among them – unfavorable heredity, environmental problems, industrial and domestic hazards, stress, poor nutrition, unhealthy habits, low-activity lifestyle, viral diseases, etc. At the same time, studies show that about 80% of risk factors are potentially disposable, Most cases of cancer can be prevented. This requires the efforts not only of oncologists, but, above all, of the individual himself.
With the purpose of early detection of cancer, regular prophylactic medical examination is offered, periodic medical examinations of a certain contingent of individuals are conducted, and comprehensive oncoscreening programs for men and women are developed and implemented (“onco check-up”). For all persons over 40 years of age, a preventive oncological examination should be performed once every 2 years, and people with a weighed background should be treated annually. The most frequent studies included in oncoscreening are the determination of blood cancer markers (CEA, AFP), ultrasound of the abdominal cavity and kidneys, thyroid gland, fluorography, FGDS, colonoscopy. For women, consultation with a gynecologist, ultrasound of pelvic organs, colposcopy, cytological smear, determination of CA 15-3 and CA-125, mammography; for men – consultation of the urologist, definition of PSA and ultrasound of the prostate.
The study of cancer in developed countries today is one of the priority areas of medicine, and significant progress has been made in this direction. Along with traditional methods of treatment of cancer diseases (surgical removal of tumor and metastases, radiation therapy, chemotherapeutic treatment, hormone therapy), effective methods of physical influence on tumor tissue are used (cryoablation, laser therapy, high-intensity focused ultrasound, hyperthermia, etc.). A promising area in oncology is cancer immunotherapy with the use of monoclonal antibodies, antitumor vaccines, activated T-lymphocytes, etc.
To the experimental types of cancer treatment, which need further study and clinical approbation, to date, include gene therapy, neutron capture therapy, nanoterapy, etc.
Every patient should remember that oncological disease is not a sentence, but in the early stages most tumors can be completely cured. A strong role in the victory over cancer is played by the willful efforts of the patient himself, the moral attitude toward a favorable outcome.
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