Breast cancer is a disease that is most common in women. Characterized by the formation of a malignant tumor of the breast. In this article we will look at breast cancer stages which are from 0 to 4 and discover their symptoms, severity and consider possible treatment options.
The main features of this disease are that it has a rapid growth and a tendency to spread metastasis to other organs. In rare cases, breast cancer can also develop in a strong half of humanity.
As static information over the past few years is shown, breast cancer is more than one in nine women, which is why it is so important after 40 years to regularly undergo all diagnostic tests.
There are several stages of breast cancer.
- Stage Zero;
- First stage;
- Second stage;
- The third stage, which includes three more substages;
- The last stage is the fourth.
Stage Zero breast cancer
Zero or precancerous stage is characterized by the development of intraepithelial carcinoma, which can be of two types:
In the first case, the abnormal cells begin to develop in the lobular membrane. As a rule, such breast cancer, in rare cases, can turn into an invasive form. However, if the examination reveals the presence of lobular intraepithelial carcinoma in the breast, this indicates the presence of high risks of breast cancer.
The second type of carcinoma is ductal, which is characterized by the location of abnormal cells in ductal membranes. These cells do not go beyond the ducts, but such a cancer can turn into an invasive form, if during the time the treatment methods are not applied.
Stage 1 breast cancer
After the zero stage, the abnormal cells begin to develop vigorously, and already the cancer tumor enters the first stage – this is the stage of invasive breast cancer. The total size of the tumor in diameter has a maximum size of 2 cm.
Oncological cells do not spread beyond the chest.
If cancer is detected at the first stage with modern diagnostic methods, the prognosis is favorable and in 90% of cases a complete recovery takes place. If you carry out an effective treatment in stage 1, then the recovery occurs quickly. The main thing is the observance of all medical recommendations and the passage of the necessary number of procedures.
It should be immediately noted that after the doctor announces oncological diagnosis, it is strictly forbidden to perform treatment with traditional methods. In practice, there are a large number of cases where a delay in drug treatment has led to drastic measures. And, in fact, at the first stage of breast cancer, you can do without operable intervention.
Stage 2 breast cancer
After the first stage, the oncological disease of the breast passes into the second form, which is characterized by the following features:
- The size of the tumor in diameter has a maximum size of 2 centimeters.
- Cancer cells begin to spread to the lymph nodes located in the armpit.
- The tumor over time begins to increase in size from 2 to 5 cm in diameter.
- The diameter of the tumor can reach 5 cm or more in diameter. Cancer cells do not spread to the axillary lymph nodes.
Symptoms of the second stage of breast cancer do not have a pronounced color, in some cases, the development of the disease may even proceed without any symptoms.
If a specialist is diagnosed regularly, then the tumor, of course, will be noticed. The main thing is not to try to diagnose yourself, but to go to a specialist, because, the sooner the treatment is started, the more chances for full recovery.
Stage 3 breast cancer
If at the second stage the cancer was not noticed, then after it it goes into a more severe form. The third stage of this disease has three varieties (a, b, c), which successively replace each other as the tumor develops. A cancerous tumor can grow in size, but does not spread further to the breast and lymph nodes.
Breast cancer stages overview
IIIA. Here a cancer can be 5 centimeters in diameter and slightly larger. Cancer cells begin to actively spread in the lymph nodes of the axillary region, which are located in close proximity to each other.
Stage IIIB is characterized by an increase in the area of the lesion that engulfs the skin of the breast or chest wall. After that, the cancer cells begin to spread further into the lymph nodes, which are located behind the sternum. One type of breast cancer grade 3 group b is inflammatory cancer.
Stage IIIC involves the spread of cancer cells to the lymph nodes, which are located in the armpits or behind the chest, and it can also be the lymph nodes in the clavicle.
The first stage of treatment is the patient undergoing a course of chemotherapy. If after a course of treatment there is a positive trend, then an operation is performed to remove the tumor.
The tactics of treating breast cancer of the third degree is developed on the council. If there is a need for a mastectomy, then a plastic surgeon is also involved, in order to determine the size of the implant to be installed in the future in place of the removed mammary gland.
The choice of the method, as well as drugs for chemotherapy, is determined based on the size of the tumor, damage to the lymphatic system and the individual characteristics of the patient.
Stage 4 breast cancer
The last degree of the oncological disease, the fourth, is characterized by the spread of metastasis to other organs. If breast cancer was detected at the last stage, then a strong treatment with various drugs is used. In this case, a positive outcome is possible in 10% of cases.
But, in this situation, there is a problem of side effects that can be caused by potent chemicals.
During treatment, in the first place, they begin to use various hormonal preparations and agents that kill cancer cells. After undergoing this course of treatment, symptoms such as general weakness, vomiting, nausea, changes in blood structure, etc. are possible.
The entire course of chemotherapy should be conducted in a medical institution under the strict supervision of doctors. The patient should be regularly checked in order to find out the state of cancer. As a rule, already at the third stage, the cancer begins to manifest itself quite brightly, so the disease can be detected much earlier than the tumor will metastasize to other organs.
Recurrent breast cancer is a cancer that manifests itself some time after an oncological tumor has been eliminated. Cancer cells can re-form in the mammary gland, lymph nodes, or other internal organs.
Therefore, it is so important to complete the full course of taking certain drugs, even if it lasts for several years. Also after breast cancer treatment. It is necessary to visit the mammologist several times a year and undergo a number of diagnostic procedures in order to exclude the possibility of a relapse.